What is black tea?
Black tea is a type of tea that is more oxidized than oolong, white and green teas. It is stronger in flavour than other teas. Black tea is made from leaves of the Camellia sinensis.
Black tea originated in China and its name there is Hong Cha due to the colour of the oxidized leaves when processed appropriately.
Black tea is widespread throughout east and south-east Asia both harvesting and drinking.
Black tea retains its flavour for several years. Unblended black teas are named after the region in which they are produced. Different regions are producing teas with different flavours.
What is Green Tea?
Green tea is a tea type that is made from Camellia sinensis buds and leaves. Green tea has not undergone the same withering and oxidation process. Green tea originated in China. Now its production and manufacture have spread to other countries in Asia.
Green tea is prepared by steaming and frying the leaves of Camellia sinensis the then drying them. Green tea is not fermented. Therefore polyphenols are not destructed. Polyphenols which are available in green tea responsible for many health benefits.
Chemical composition(Black Tea vs Green tea)
Chemical Composition of Black Tea
Black tea is manufactured by the fermentation of green tea. There are two steps in fermenting green tea, oxidation and polymerization. In the oxidation process, enzymatic catalysis of polyphenol may occur.
Polymerization involves a nucleophile addition and is further oxidized by oxygen. Black tea polyphenols consist of these chemical compounds.
- Phenolic acid
Theaflavin is an important antioxidant present in black tea. It is a metal cheating polyphenol. Theaflavins are formed through the co-oxidation of selected catechin pairs. Theaflavins including theaflavin, theaflavin-3-gallate, theaflavin-3-gallate, and theaflavin-3,3-digallate, consist of benzotropolone rings with dihydroxy or trihydroxy substitution groups. There are eight or more theaflavins that can be produced proportionally.
Catechins contained in the black tea leaf react with water and resulting in the oxygenated catechins. Highly oxygenated black tea polyphenols are further oxidation to form quinine.
Flavonols are biologically active polyphenolic compounds. It is widely spread in plants. Flavonols are a very common component of our daily diet.
There are six sub-classes in the flavonols especially, Glycosides, a subclass of flavonols found in black tea. 2%-3% of the water-soluble extract solids of tea consist of flavonol glycoside.
There is a sub-class of flavonols, aglycones are not found in significant amounts in the tea due to their poor water solubility.
Myricetin is a natural flavonol from vegetables, fruits, tea and medicinal plants. Its dietary intake range is higher than other flavonols.
Chemical composition of Green Tea
Here are the main chemical compounds contained in green tea.
- Amino acid
- Other nitrogenous compounds
- Inorganic compounds
The bitter taste of green tea is come out due to polyphenols. There are six kinds of Catechins are including in the green tea. There are,
Catechin synthesis is done in tea leaves using malonic acid-and shikimic acid metabolic pathways. an intermediary product is formed in this process and gallic acid is derived from that.
Caffeine is produced from the leaves of the tea plant in ancient times. The caffeine content of the green teacup 5%) is more than a coffee cup (1.5) %. Caffeine can also stimulate the cerebral cortex which results in central nervous system excitation. Irritation in the gastrointestinal tract and sleeplessness are the major problems with caffeine.
- Amino acids and other nitrogenous compounds
Most of the nitrogenous compounds originate from caffeine. Other forms of nitrogenous compounds are amino acids, amides, certain proteins, and nucleic acids. Proteins are bound with tannins that make them insoluble. Major amino acids found in green tea are Theanine and Glutamic acid. Amino acid content is higher when harvesting in the spring than in other seasons.
Green tea is rich in Vitamin C. 100g of dried leaves contain around 280mg of Vitamins. The amounts of vitamins are richer in green tea than in black tea and oolong tea.
- Inorganic Elements
Aluminium and Fluorine content in the green tea leaves are higher than in other plants. Fluorine is helpful for dental health. Fluorine prevents bacterial attacks on teeth by covering the surface.
Green tea contains carbohydrate and cellulosic fibre constitute. Starch is affect the quality of green tea. Starch content in the tea leaves varies day by day, because, Starch synthesis starts at dawn and finishes at sunset. Therefore more starch is contained in the tea leaves harvested in the evening. But the quality of the tea leaves is increased when harvested in the morning.
Comparison of Health benefits of Black Tea vs Green Tea
Black tea for Cancer
Cancer is the leading cause of human mortality worldwide. Black tea is helpful in protecting against cancer because of its anti-carcinogenic effect.
Researchers have proved that women who tend to consume black tea daily, cause to reducing the risk of hormone-related diseases.
Regular black tea consumption is very useful to reduce the risk of ovarian and bladder cancers.
Tea polyphenols inhibit tumorigenesis at different organ sites, including the skin, lung, oral cavity, oesophagus, stomach, small intestine, colon, liver, pancreas, and mammary gland.
However, the methods of tea production, the bioavailability of tea compounds, genetic variation in how people respond to tea consumption, the concomitant use of tobacco and alcohol, and other lifestyle factors influence the development of cancer.
Green tea for Cancer
The cancer rate is low in countries such as Japan where people regularly consume green tea. Polyphenols in green tea may play an important role in cancer prevention. Polyphenols help to kill cancerous cells and stop them from growing.
But some researchers have said that there is no real effect of green tea on cancer. Green tea has the ability to boost the immunity system of cancer consumptive patients and help them to fight cancer.
Green tea is caused to prevent the accumulation of toxins in the body. It can give some control to cancer and its treatments.
Breast Cancer – polyphenols in green tea may inhibit the growth of breast cancer cells. Researchers have found that women under the age of 50 who consumed 3 or more cups of tea per day were 37% less likely to develop breast cancer compared to women who did not drink tea.
Black tea for weight loss
Black tea joins with the assistance of a special mechanism contributes to weight loss and good health. Black tea has the ability to decrease intestinal bacteria associated with obesity.
The intestinal bacteria that live with associated lean body mass increase by the black tea. Flavonoids are chemical compounds found in black tea that cause lower visceral fats and triglycerides. Then obesity may be decreased.
Two calories, 0% cholesterol and saturated fat are included in the one cup of black tea. But black tea contains more caffeine content than green tea. Too much caffeine will lead to dehydration in the body.
Tannins are responsible for the strong flavour in the black teacup. It has no harmful effect when consume moderately. But too many types of tannin cause nausea and vomiting.
Green tea for weight loss
Catechins contained in green tea have a major role in weight loss. Caffeine is a stimulant contained in green tea that leads to fat burning and improves the performance of the exercise.
Consuming moderate levels of green tea is rise up the antioxidant content in the bloodstream in the body. EGCG (Epigallocatechin gallate) is the most important substance contained in green tea that boosts metabolism.
Green tea has the ability to boost some fat-burning hormones. Norepinephrine is the hormone that causes the fat burn.
Both EGCG and caffeine have a synergistic effect. The fat cells are breaking down more fat. Green tea is repeatedly increased fat burning during exercises. Green tea and EGCG can make burn more calories even at rest.
Black tea for Cardiac health
Hypertension is a disease that affects more people in the world. Hypertension is lead to heart diseases and it has been found to be one of the leading causes of cardiovascular diseases. Cardiovascular diseases are the most worrisome health conditions that are associated with high mortality rates.
Drinking three cups of black tea per day is help to reduce blood pressure significantly and control heart diseases. Flavonoids in black tea help to reduce the risk of heart diseases by helping blood circulate freely in the arteries.
Overconsumption of black tea leads to side effects such as insomnia. The reason is caffeine in the black tea. Caffeine stimulates the nervous system.
Green tea for Cardiac Diseases
Green tea consumption is lowering the risk of cardiovascular diseases and lower LDL cholesterol and triglycerides. The studies have found that lower risk of coronary artery disease for those who are drinking green tea than for black tea lovers.
Green tea has the ability to significantly lower the IDL Cholesterol and Triglycerides levels. Catechins and Polyphenols are causing these situations.
Black Tea Green Tea for Arthritis
Both green tea and black tea is the best beverage for arthritis patients. They are rich in anti-inflammatory compounds like polyphenols. Green tea is most beneficial because of EGCG. Epigallocatechin gallate helps to preserve cartilage and bone.
Black tea and Green tea for Diabetes
Tea is a great choice for diabetes patients because it provides hydration and antioxidants. Antioxidants help to fight free radicals, which are chemicals that can damage cells and genetic material.
Drinking three or more cups of tea per day was linked to a lower risk of diabetes. Black tea may work in the body in part by improving insulin resistance.
Black tea may work in the body in part by improving insulin resistance and reducing carbohydrate absorption and improving blood glucose control.
People, who drink black tea, had a lower prevalence of incidence of type 2 diabetes
Which one is healthier (Black Tea or GreenTea)
Both two have similar benefits. Green tea has stronger antioxidant compounds than black tea. Black tea contains more caffeine than green tea. Green tea contains more L-theanine, an amino acid that’s calming and can balance the effects of caffeine.
Both green and black teas include tannins which can bind to minerals and reduce their absorption capacity.
Side effects of Black Tea
Generally, black tea is a safe beverage but ingredients and quality may be varied. If you drink more than 5 or 6 cups per day may cause health problems.
- Reduce Iron Absorption
Tannins are included in the black tea. They can bind to iron in certain foods, rendering it unavailable for absorption digestive tract. Excessive Tea intake may cause Iron deficiency the most common deficiency worldwide.
- Restlessness and Stress
Overconsuming caffeine intake may contribute to feelings of stress and restlessness. Black tea tends to have more caffeine content than green tea. Therefore, caffeine-free herbal teas are the best solution for this incident.
- Sleeping Problems
Excessive intake of black tea may disrupt your sleeping time. Sleeping problems are linked with mental issues and poor blood sugar control.
- Caffeine dependence
Caffeine in black tea is a stimulant. If you drink black tea with a short frequency may lead to a caffeine-addicted person.
- Pregnancy Complications
High caffeine intake during pregnancy may increase complications.
You should keep in mind to take a black teacup in-between meals.
Here are the other side effects that may occur.
- Increased urination
- Nausea and Vomiting
- High blood pressure
- Increase stress
Too much caffeine consumption may lead to,
- Digestive issues
- Breakdown of muscles
- Rapid heart rate
- Frequent urination
Side effects of Green tea
Green tea is now known to have certain side effects.
- Stomach troubles
Caffeine and tannins present in green tea may lead to stomach troubles. They can increase the acid level in the body. Then burning sensation, constipation and pains may occur. Tea is a stimulant of gastric acid.
- Skin Allergies
Eczema and Hives are common skin allergies that occur when drinking green tea. They are the conditions of the skin where the skin is hypersensitive.
So, you should avoid drinking strong tea to avoid skin rashes.
Here are the other side effects that occur when over-consuming green tea.
- Sleeping problems
- Iron deficiency
- Bleeding disorders
- Liver diseases